The chest is composed of many parts including the lungs, muscles, ribs, trachea, heart, esophagus, pleura, aorta, skin and many more. A problem in any of these components can be responsible for pain in the chest. Initially, women who complain of chest pain will be diagnosed for heart diseases with the aid of stress test. More often than not, this test will indicate a positive result and denotes coronary heart disease.
However, successive tests such as angiograms will not be able to find anything that has medical importance. Nevertheless, latest researches have revealed that this difficult-to-diagnose pain among women could be due to microvascular dysfunction as well as endothelial dysfunction. The former is a condition in which the tiny blood vessels will not dilate or constrict in a normal manner. Thus, the normal supply of blood to the heart is impaired and will cause chest pain.
Aside from these, accumulation of plaque within the arteries will take place in this manner. This is not usually detectable through an angiogram. Alternatively, the latter is a condition in which the cells lining the interior surface of the blood vessels do not function properly.
Other conditions which are associated with chest pain among young women are mitral prolapse, mitral splenosis, rheumatic heart disease, angina, valvular heart disease and many more. Pulmonary embolism resulting from blood clots in the major blood vessels which transport blood to the lungs will cause pain in the chest. Costochondritis, pneumothorax and esophageal reflux can also contribute to chest pain. It has been noted that chest pain will also occur due to anxiety and stress.
Pain in the right side of the chest may be due to conditions which are not associated with the heart. For instance, liver disease such as hepatitis, pneumonia and gallstone formation can result to right-sided chest pain among women. On the other hand, a muscle twitch which could either be because of rapid breathing or inappropriate posture can produce chest pain on both sides.
Studies have indicated that women before the menopausal period have less chances of getting heart diseases. This is because high level of estrogen can provide protection against heart diseases through prevention of atherosclerosis or narrowing of arteries. But after the menopausal period, when estrogen level decreases in due course, they will have equal possibility to develop coronary heart diseases as men.
Yet, this will not mean that heart attacks are completely excluded. It will only denote that the possibility of getting heart diseases is lower in females before they reach the menopausal stage when compared to men. Also, this points to the reality that in case a heart disease is not responsible for chest pain, then perhaps, women must be properly diagnosed for other conditions.
Cellulitis infection is known to be a bacterial infection which takes place on the body and will result to severe skin inflammation. The symptoms of cellulitis are characterized by a single patch on the skin which will turn red, become swollen and tender and also highly inflamed. Cellulitis denotes inflammation of cells. Such inflammation can affect the first two deeper layers of the skin namely the dermis and the subcutaneous layer. Thus, it also affects the fat and tissues. This contagious is not infectious considering that the infection affects the deeper layers of the skin and does not infect the upper or top layer of the skin.
Cellulitis skin infection starts by affecting a tiny patch and then will start to spread on a bigger area. Even if this condition will affect any part of the body as in the case of facial cellulitis that affects the face, it has been observed that cellulitis infection is most often found in the lower portions of the leg and will also become dangerous.
Every now and then, a skin abrasion can result to an infection. In other times, it does not require an area in which there is an open wound. Yet, it can develop on a site which is smooth and has possibly had a previous infection such as athlete’s foot or eczema. Together with that, infection will also occur due to skin rashes, insect and animal bites and tattooing. Furthermore, there are instances in which the infection can result because of the emergence of diabetes, radiation or AIDS.
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Will you join us in telling the FDA that it is time to even the score and give women the options they deserve for the treatment of sexual dysfunction? Sign the petition today and become an advocate for women’s sexual health equity.
It’s called the “little pink pill,” a tiny tablet that could have a huge impact on treating female sexual dysfunction. If it’s approved, it would become the first drug of its kind on the market.
The drug Flibanserin is locked in a heated battle for approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, raising controversial questions about why there are so many sexual enhancement drugs available for men and zero for women. To read the whole article CLICK HERE
We recently learned that the manufacturer that now owns Flibanserin has filed an appeal of a recent FDA denial, saying that other drugs have been approved with less data and more extreme side effects. And that’s reignited discussion about whether pharmaceutical products targeting women’s sexual disorders are evaluated on a level—or relevant—playing field.
Flibanserin, Librido, and Lybridos (and a small handful of others) are all drugs designed to play a part in awakening libido for women. They counter hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), in physicians’ terminology (the rest of us call it “not tonight—or tomorrow night, either” syndrome). There are, for context, a couple of dozen FDA-approved drugs for the comparable problem among men, including Viagra, the blue pill.
I don’t have the insider information I’d need to assert a double standard, although people I know and respect—like my colleague Sheryl Kingsberg, PhD,—suggest there is one. Women’s health psychologist at University Hospitals MacDonald Women’s Hospital, Sheryl said, “There’s a double standard of approving drugs with a high risk for men versus a minimal risk for women.” The side effects for Flibanserin, for example, were reported as dizziness and nausea; Sheryl compares those to side effects of penile pain, penile hematoma, and penile fracture—all from a drug that was approved.
That does sound like some extra protectiveness of women. Given my focus on sexual health for women, I run into a lot of cultural expectations and hesitations; we Americans are still just a bit prudish when it comes to, especially, older women having sex. That’s in spite of what I see in my practice every day: Women themselves want to live whole lives, which means being physically active, emotionally engaged, and sexually active within their relationships.
I recognize that sexuality for women is complex, and there won’t be a “magic bullet.” For women, arousal and desire is a mix of emotional intimacy, biological responses, and psychological responses; a drug won’t address all of the components. But because I’m often working with patients to untangle interlocking causes of problems with sex, I’m eager for as many tools as possible, including pharmaceuticals.
As a physician, I also see the need to evaluate trade-offs and risks. I’ve talked before about the pros and cons of hormone therapy. For some women, living longer doesn’t really count if they’re not able to be active—including being actively sexual. “Pink Viagra” drugs may well require the same kind of close collaboration between women and their doctors to evaluate risks and benefits. Again, Sheryl: “Give women a chance to decide for themselves, within reason. There is no drug out there that has no risk.” In the case of Flibanserin, only 8 percent of testers said the side effects were bad enough to make them want to drop the drug.
These decisions by the FDA are also important because pharmaceutical research is done by businesses, businesses that can decide that one problem or another is too expensive or too complicated to take on. Sheryl sees this, too, saying, “My worry is that research in this area will dry up and will leave many women without a pharmacological option.”
One way to make your voice heard about the importance of continued research is by signing the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health (ISSWSH) WISH petition.(The petition link is on the home page of Vibrance sites, eg www.hisandherhealth.com( Our sexual health is integral to our overall health, and we need more investigation and even-handed, common-sense consideration of therapies for women.
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